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Things You Need to Know About Cosmetic Dentistry - Bone Grafting or Augmentation

 

There are two types of Augmentation; a sinus lift or augmentation or bone graft or augmentation.

A sinus Lift
is the replacement or augmentation of the bone in the molar region of the upper jaw.

It is sometimes needed for patients who want dental implants
if the roots of the upper molars have grown deep into the jaw bone.  The risk of the sinus becoming exposed is possible during extraction.  If sinus exposure happens, then the surgeons can regenerate the bone in the molar area to close it.

If the upper molars have already been removed, it is possible that the sinus cavity can move close to the ridge of the jawbone. Over a period of time, the cavity can drift so far that there is insufficient surface area for the placement of dental Implants.

A bone graft or bone augmentation is the replacement or augmentation of the bone which surround the teeth.  It is sometimes needed to reverse the bone loss or destruction, caused by missing teeth, periodontal disease, trauma, or ill fitting removable dentures.  Most commonly, patients have bone grafting to permit the placement of dental Implants to support crowns or bridges.  Bone augmentation is also common when patients need extra bone to enhance the fit and comfort of removable dentures.

When teeth are removed, the jaw bone reduces in size which is called resorption.  Sometimes the jaw bone decreases in size so much that the dental Implant surgeon cannot put in dental implants. This is because there is lack of bone density, bone height, bone width or not enough area to the jawbone surface.  When teeth are lost, such as when extracted, the surrounding bone collapses. To preserve the bone for future implant placement or for aesthetics, a bone graft is used.

There are different types of bone grafts

Allograft  is either synthetic bone or bone from a bone bank (cadaver bone).  The most common Allograft procedure is where an inert of man made synthetic materials to mimic natural bone is used. Generally the synthetic material comes in the form of calcium phosphate.  Depending on how it is made, it may be "resorbable" or "non-resorbable". This means that your body may or may not replace the alloplastic graft with your natural bone. In cases where it is not replaced, it acts as a lattice or scaffold which natural bone is built. In either case, the end result is to create enough bone for the placement of dental implants. Human bone from a donor is also a type of Allograft.


Autograft - bone taken from an area of the patient and transplanted to another.  
Autogenous bone is described as the best type of graft, because the bone is live bone with live active cellular elements that enhance bone growth.  Bone can be taken from areas inside the mouth, but bone can also be taken from other areas of the body with the hip being a common place to graft from.  When this type of bone graft is used, the procedure is generally carried out in a hospital environment with a surgeon removing the bone from the hip and a dentist carrying out the procedure in the mouth. 

Xenograft - bovine or cow bone.  
This is bone which is usually taken from bovinus . It acts like a filling which will be replaced by the body's natural bone.  After the process, the dental Implants can be placed to support individual crowns, bridges or to stabilise prosthetics.

Bone grafting in preparation for dental implants can increase the amount of time needed before the dental process is completed.

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